Complete engine thermal model

Thermal management has become a crucial issue in the design of modern vehicles. On one side, with high specific power outputs, the amount of excess heat to be disposed of is a serious challenge for vehicle reliability. On the other hand, at ordinary use, the excess heat available is limited and often insufficient to provide adequate heating to the cabin and to the catalytic converter controlling the vehicle harmful emissions. This is particularly true during the vehicle warm-up process in cold climates, significantly influencing real-world fuel consumption.